Combining media audience data with consumer transactions to inform media targeting and measure ad effectiveness has dramatically accelerated during the past several years. Modeling has become a significant element within these data integrations as no one data source provides comprehensive representation of the consumer population. In many cases, probabilistic methods are used to identify consumers that meet marketers’ targeting criteria. Not enough is known about how consumer models are constructed as well as how accurately they depict intended target consumers; many third party data providers are not forthcoming regarding techniques and validation procedure. This is why studies like this one are so important.